/manager/Index ${session.getAttribute("locale")} 5 Essential role of calmodulin in RyR inhibition by dantrolene /manager/Repository/uon:22802 2+ release. Although dantrolene inhibits Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and cardiac muscle preparations, its mechanism of action has remained controversial, because dantrolene does not inhibit single ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels in lipid bilayers. Here we test the hypothesis that calmodulin (CaM), a physiologic RyR binding partner that is lost during incorporation into lipid bilayers, is required for dantrolene inhibition of RyR channels. In single channel recordings (100 nM cytoplasmic [Ca2+] + 2 mM ATP), dantrolene caused inhibition of RyR1 (rabbit skeletal muscle) and RyR2 (sheep) with a maximal inhibition of Po (Emax) to 52 ± 4% of control only after adding physiologic [CaM] = 100 nM. Dantrolene inhibited RyR2 with an IC50 of 0.16 ± 0.03 µM. Mutant N98S-CaM facilitated dantrolene inhibition with an IC50 = 5.9 ± 0.3 nM. In mouse cardiomyocytes, dantrolene had no effect on cardiac Ca2+ release in the absence of CaM, but reduced Ca2+ wave frequency (IC50 = 0.42 ± 0.18 µM, Emax = 47 ± 4%) and amplitude (IC50 = 0.19 ± 0.04 µM, Emax = 66 ± 4%) in the presence of 100 nM CaM. We conclude that CaM is essential for dantrolene inhibition of RyR1 and RyR2. Its absence explains why dantrolene inhibition of single RyR channels has not been previously observed.]]> Sat 24 Mar 2018 07:12:18 AEDT ]]> The emerging role of calmodulin regulation of RyR2 in controlling heart rhythm, the progression of heart failure and the antiarrhythmic action of dantrolene /manager/Repository/uon:33275 Mon 24 Sep 2018 13:26:23 AEST ]]>