https://ogma.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Index ${session.getAttribute("locale")} 5 Fertility preservation in childhood cancer: endocrine activity in prepubertal human testis xenografts exposed to a pubertal hormone environment https://ogma.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:45116 n = 6; aged 1–14 years) who underwent testis tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation. Fresh and frozen-thawed testis fragments were transplanted subcutaneously or intratesticularly into immunocompromised mice. Graft-bearing mice received injections of vehicle or exogenous gonadotrophins, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, 20 IU), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, 12.5 IU) three times a week for 12 weeks. The gross morphology of vehicle and gonadotrophin-exposed grafts was similar for both transplantation sites. Exposure of prepubertal human testis tissue xenografts to exogenous gonadotrophins resulted in limited endocrine function of grafts, as demonstrated by the occasional expression of the steroidogenic cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1). Plasma testosterone concentrations (0.13 vs. 0.25 ng/mL; p = 0.594) and seminal vesicle weights (10.02 vs. 13.93 mg; p = 0.431) in gonadotrophin-exposed recipient mice were comparable to vehicle-exposed controls. Regardless of the transplantation site and treatment, initiation and maintenance of androgen receptor (AR) expression were observed in Sertoli cells, indicating commitment towards a more differentiated status. However, neither exogenous gonadotrophins (in castrated host mice) nor endogenous testosterone (in intact host mice) were sufficient to repress the expression of markers associated with immature Sertoli cells, such as anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and Ki67, or to induce the redistribution of junctional proteins (connexin 43, CX43; claudin 11, CLDN11) to areas adjacent to the basement membrane. Spermatogonia did not progress developmentally but remained the most advanced germ cell type in testis xenografts. Overall, these findings demonstrate that exogenous gonadotrophins promote partial activation and maturation of the somatic environment in prepubertal testis xenografts. However, alternative hormone regimens or additional factors for pubertal induction are required to complete the functional maturation of the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) niche.]]> Wed 26 Oct 2022 13:34:31 AEDT ]]> Exogenous gonadotrophin stimulation induces partial maturation of human sertoli cells in a testicular xenotransplantation model for fertility preservation https://ogma.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:45062 n = 9, 1 year-adult). Human fetal testis (n = 6; 14-21 gestational weeks) tissue, which models many aspects of prepubertal testicular development, was transplanted subcutaneously into castrated immunocompromised mice for ~12 months. The mice received exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 20IU, 3x/week). In xenografts exposed continuously to hCG, we demonstrate the maintenance of Leydig cell steroidogenesis, the acquisition of features of Sertoli cell maturation (androgen receptor, lumen development), and the formation of the blood-testis barrier (connexin 43), none of which were present prior to the transplantation or in xenografts in which hCG was withdrawn after 7 months. These studies provide evidence that hCG plays a role in Sertoli cell maturation, which is relevant for future investigations, helping them generate functional gametes from immature testis tissue for clinical application.]]> Wed 26 Oct 2022 12:10:47 AEDT ]]> Xenotransplantation as a model for human testicular development https://ogma.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/ /manager/Repository/uon:33911 Wed 06 Apr 2022 13:58:36 AEST ]]>