/manager/Index ${session.getAttribute("locale")} 5 Calmodulin inhibition of human RyR2 channels requires phosphorylation of RyR2-S2808 or RyR2-S2814 /manager/Repository/uon:34969 d = 121 ± 14 nM. Ex-vivo phosphorylation/dephosphorylation experiments suggested that the divergent CaM regulation of healthy and failing human RyR2 was caused by differences in RyR2 phosphorylation by protein kinase A and Ca-CaM-dependent kinase II. Ca2+-spark measurements in murine cardiomyocytes harbouring RyR2 phosphomimetic or phosphoablated mutants at S2814 and S2808 suggest that phosphorylation of residues corresponding to either human RyR2-S2808 or S2814 is both necessary and sufficient for RyR2 regulation by CaM. Our results challenge the current concept that CaM universally functions as a canonical inhibitor of RyR2 across species. Rather, CaM's biological action on human RyR2 appears to be more nuanced, with inhibitory activity only on phosphorylated RyR2 channels, which occurs during exercise or in patients with heart failure.]]> Wed 24 Jun 2020 11:42:42 AEST ]]> Essential role of calmodulin in RyR inhibition by dantrolene /manager/Repository/uon:22802 2+ release. Although dantrolene inhibits Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal and cardiac muscle preparations, its mechanism of action has remained controversial, because dantrolene does not inhibit single ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels in lipid bilayers. Here we test the hypothesis that calmodulin (CaM), a physiologic RyR binding partner that is lost during incorporation into lipid bilayers, is required for dantrolene inhibition of RyR channels. In single channel recordings (100 nM cytoplasmic [Ca2+] + 2 mM ATP), dantrolene caused inhibition of RyR1 (rabbit skeletal muscle) and RyR2 (sheep) with a maximal inhibition of Po (Emax) to 52 ± 4% of control only after adding physiologic [CaM] = 100 nM. Dantrolene inhibited RyR2 with an IC50 of 0.16 ± 0.03 µM. Mutant N98S-CaM facilitated dantrolene inhibition with an IC50 = 5.9 ± 0.3 nM. In mouse cardiomyocytes, dantrolene had no effect on cardiac Ca2+ release in the absence of CaM, but reduced Ca2+ wave frequency (IC50 = 0.42 ± 0.18 µM, Emax = 47 ± 4%) and amplitude (IC50 = 0.19 ± 0.04 µM, Emax = 66 ± 4%) in the presence of 100 nM CaM. We conclude that CaM is essential for dantrolene inhibition of RyR1 and RyR2. Its absence explains why dantrolene inhibition of single RyR channels has not been previously observed.]]> Sat 24 Mar 2018 07:12:18 AEDT ]]>