The evidence base for weight loss programs in men is limited. Gaining a greater understanding of which personal characteristics and pretreatment behaviors predict weight loss and attrition in male-only studies would be useful to inform the development of future interventions for men. In December 2010, 159 overweight/obese men (mean age = 47.5 years; body mass index = 32.7 kg/m2) from the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, participated in a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of two versions of a 3-month gender-targeted weight loss program. In the current analyses, social–cognitive, behavioral, and demographic pretreatment characteristics were examined to determine if they predicted weight loss and attrition in the participants over 6 months. Generalized linear mixed models (intention-to-treat) revealed weight change was associated with education level (p = .02), marital status (p = .03), fat mass (p = .045), sitting time on nonwork (p = .046), and workdays (p = .03). Workday sitting time and marital status accounted for 6.5% (p = .01) of the variance in the final model. Attrition was associated with level of education (p = .01) and body fat percentage (p = .01), accounting for 9.5% (p = .002) of the variance in the final model. This study suggests men who spend a lot of time sitting at work, especially those who are not married, may require additional support to experience success in self-administered weight loss programs targeting males. Additional high-quality evidence is needed to improve the understanding which pretreatment behaviors and characteristics predict weight loss and attrition in men.