We consider a finite element method based on biorthogonal or quasi-biorthogonal systems for the biharmonic problem. The method is based on the primal mixed finite element method due to Ciarlet and Raviart for the biharmonic equation. Using different finite element spaces for the stream function and vorticity, this approach leads to a formulation only based on the stream function. We prove optimal a priori estimates for both stream function and vorticity, and present numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency of the approach.
Journal of Scientific Computing Vol. 46, Issue 3, p. 379-396